Salivary Interleukin - 6: Assessment In Chronic Generalized Periodontitis Patient With And Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Background: Periodontitis is affected by various systemic diseases, among them Diabetes Mellitus is a major systemic factor to influence the severity of chronic periodontitis. Various inflammatory markers are produced in the course of disease that can be reflected in saliva. This study evaluates the salivary concentration of interleukin-6 (IL - 6) in periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods: Whole saliva samples were collected from sixty four patients who were further divided into four groups; Healthy group (control group; n = 16), Chronic Generalized Periodontitis (PD; n = 16), Diabetes Mellitus (DM; n = 16), and Chronic Generalized Periodontitis along with Diabetes Mellitus (PD + DM; n = 16 patients). Salivary IL-6 concentrations were determined by standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Clinical parameters were recorded like Gingival Index (GI), Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Gingival Recession (GR), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) with the help of mouth mirror and UNC -15 graduated periodontal probe.
Results: Result showed that the Chronic Generalized Periodontitis patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus exhibited higher concentrations of salivary IL-6 than the control group and diabetes groups. Further, the salivary IL-6 was correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin A levels in patient with diabetes. This is due to the fact that both Diabetes & Periodontitis are chronic inflammatory disease that significantly increase the expression of IL-6 which cause insulin resistance in adipocyte and thereby affecting HbA1c levels. Therefore, both can affect severity of each other. Salivary concentration of IL‐6 was determined using an Human IL-6 (Interleukin- 6) ELISA Kit. Kruskal Wallis test was applied to compare any statistical difference between groups for clinical parameters, HbA1c and IL-6. Spearman correlation test was used to find any relation between HbA1c and IL -6 among all the groups. A significance level of 5% was set (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The salivary concentration of IL-6 was elevated in patients with periodontitis with and without diabetes. Therefore, levels of salivary IL-6 can be considered as an important biomarker in the diagnosis of periodontitis and diabetes.
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