UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES <p><strong>( An official publication of Aligarh Muslim University)</strong></p> Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University en-US UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2395-5090 Implications of Corona virus on dental practice and educations <p>New variant of the corona virus which is highly contagious version is called Novel Corona Virus 2019 and disease is called Covid 2019. Before dental procedure start all dental staff and patient above 18 years should be vaccinated</p> <p>for Covid 19 virus. Remove all the clutter and thing from practice that cannot be disinfected easily, like magazines, reading materials,toys in play area and other objects.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Print and place signage in dental office for instructing patients on standard recommendations for respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette and social distancing .Request patients to come alone and accompanied only if the patient is child/compromised/elderly patientswho cannot come alone.</p> <p>Instruct patients to brush their teeth just before they arrive for their appointments. Instruct patients to update their ArogyaSetu App at home prior to arrival for appointment. Appointments to be scheduled and spaced to avoid crowding the waiting area. All the staff should wear good quality mask, gloves and maintain a distance of at least two meters. Ensure hand sanitization and thermal scanning of all the staff and patients. Avoid all unnecessary visitors including medical representatives . Keepclinic well ventilated at all times . Ensure most frequent surface cleaning of waiting areas with sodium hypochlorite solution specially surfaces which are more often touched such as reception table top, door handles etc.</p> <p>&nbsp; Hand hygiene training should be part of staff induction. Apply the liquid soap to wet hands to reduce the risk of irritational and perform hand washing under running water. Ordinarily, the hand wash rubbing action should be for about 20 seconds.</p> <p>Effective drying of hands after washing is important because wet surfaces transfer microorganisms more easily than when they are dry, and inadequately dried hands are prone to skin damage. Always use clean single use towels. Reduce aerosol production by using rubber dam for all procedures. Use in practice 4 handed dentistry with high vacuum suction.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Before covid-19 crisis we have underestimated the role of the e-oral health infrastructure, education and services, including teledentistry .Elecronic platforms, video conferencing network and social media are being used for theretical purposes. Virtual patient based learning may improve students skills in decision making and diagnosis e.g. herpes simplex infection, recurrent aphthous&nbsp; stomatitis.&nbsp; Virtual&nbsp; models and histopathology slides using whole slide image&nbsp; for oral pathology education may improve student knowledge .</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Preclinical and clinical learning activities, in online mode is extremely difficult. Preclinical and clinical learning students may be called offline in small groups as per local authority and national pandemic guideline.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Due to covid-19 social distancing and isolation and uncertainties about the outcome of the pandemic can significantly affect students and faculty members mental health. Student delayed in completing graduation with incomplete practical clinical knowledge especially final year BDS and MDS students. This may cause anxiety, poor sleep and short sleep durations. Predisposing people to depression and post traumatic stress disorders. The monitoring of the staff members and student by college authority is important. Even in a period of uncertainty holding regular meeting can help in decreasing anxiety. Sudden inception of e-learning for students and staff can increase anxiety, the dental school administration&nbsp; must plan strategies to keep staff and students motivated.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahendra Kumar Jindal Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-05-16 2021-05-16 7 1 Determination of Optimal Loading Conditions Using Lever Arm and Mini- Implant System for En-masse Retraction in Lingual Orthodontics – A FEM Study <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To evaluate the stress distribution along the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone by various combinations of mini-implants and lever arm used during en-masse retraction of anterior teeth using finite element method.<strong>Materialsand Methods: </strong>Four three-dimensional finite element models of the bilateral maxillary first premolar extraction casewas constructed. Lingual brackets were (0.018” slot) positioned over the center of the clinical crown. In all four models 150 g of retraction force with the help of the NiTi closed coil springs was applied with different combinations of mini-implants and lever arm. A finite element analysis was then performed to evaluate stress distribution, the principle stress, von Mises stress and displacement of the anterior teeth using ANSYS 12.1 software.<strong>Result: </strong>In this study the constructed models along with the load application were imported into ANSYS (version 12.1) software for analyzing the displacement and stress distribution corresponding to the force application. The maximum tensile stress of periodontal ligament were observed at distal root apex area of canine in all four models. Variable amount of displacements like lingual crown tipping, lingual root tipping and extrusion were observed in all the models suggesting different combinations of lever arm and mini-implants affect the direction of the tooth displacements in lingual mechanics.<strong>Conclusion: </strong>In lingual orthodontics tipping movement of crown decreases as the height of lever arm increases. It was also found that when mini-implants were placed at higher position the amount of tipping movement decreases with minimum amount of extrusion seen in central incisor and lateral incisor.</p> Shalini Mishra Mukesh Kumar Manish Goyal Ashish Kushwah Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-05 2021-03-05 7 1 Efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride mouth rinses in patients with plaque induced gingivitis: Double blinded randomised case control study. <p>Aims: The study aims at making a comparative study of two commercially available mouth rinses, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride for assessing their efficacy as an antiplaque agent in patient with plaque induced gingivitis.</p> <p>Methods and Material:</p> <p>In double-blinded experimental study forty-five patients with dental plaque induced gingivitis, divided into 3 groups of 15 patients each, were advised 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT) and distilled water as a mouth rinses respectively. Clinical parameters viz, Plaque Index, Modified Gingival Index and Gingival Bleeding Index were assessed (day 0, 5,10 and15). Microbial count was also assessed from the collected plaque samples (at day 0 and on day 15). Antimicrobial susceptibility test was also done.</p> <p>Statistical analysis used: One- way ANOVA with post hoc test using Tukey, Paired- t test, Mann-Whitney U test, The Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>There was significant difference in&nbsp;mean plaque index between the different groups.&nbsp;There was a significant reduction in plaque index for 0.2% CHX The mean modified gingival index was higher in group belonging to 0.1% OCT compared to 0.2% CHX that was statistically significant (p = 0.005).&nbsp; Similarly, the mean gingival bleeding index was significantly higher in group belonging to 0.1% OCT compared to 0.2% CHX (p = 0.005). On day 15 change in the microbial count was statistically significant for 0.2% CHX (p = 0.026).and 0.1% OCT (p = 0.001).</p> <p>Conclusions:</p> <p>The antimicrobial and antiplaque efficacy (<em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro)</em> of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride containing mouth rinse was comparatively higher than that containing 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate thereby demonstrating the former's potential usefulness in controlling plaque and gingivitis.</p> Mohammed Ahsan Razi Annapurna Ahuja Seema Qamar Ankit Mahajan Pooja Mittal Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 7 1 A CBCT Based Evaluation of The Varying Location of Mandibular Canal and Mental Foramen: An Original Research Study <p><strong>Background and Aim: </strong>Iatrogenic injuries to inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) are a well known complication of implant placement, osteotomies and other surgical procedures. This study was at attempted to determine the most common position of the mental foramen and to estimate difference in position of mental foramen, occurrence of anterior loop and to evaluate the variation in the location of mandibular canal using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) radiographs. <strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> A total of 205 north Indian subjects were selected during a period of two years. Formerly exposed CBCT images of the selected subjects were studied by ‘iCAT Vision’ and ‘Anatomage’ Software. Measurements from the mandibular canal to the root apices of the first premolar, second premolar, first molar and second molar were obtained. Likewise the distance from the inferior alveolar canal to the buccal cortical plate (BCP) and lingual cortical plates (LCP) were also studied. The estimation of the horizontal and vertical positioning of mental foramen on the CBCT images was also done on both sides. Other inter-related dimensional parameters were also studied comprehensively. The incidence of Anterior Loop (AL) was also assessed and comparisons were done among both sides of the jaw and gender. <strong>Statistical Analysis and Results: </strong>A total of 205 subjects comprising of 108 (52.7%) males and 97 (47.3%) female participated in the study. The Unpaired t-test showed a statistically significant difference among males and females in the measurements of IAC. Among males Linear, Perpendicular and Anterior loop pattern was seen in 64 (59.3%), 34 (31.4%) and 10 (9.3%) subjects respectively. Among males prevalence of right sided anterior loop (Mental Foramen) was 10 (30.3%), left sided anterior loop was 10 (30.3%). The Unpaired t-test showed a statistically non-significant difference among males and females. (p&gt;0.5) Anterior loop was seen on 17 (51.5%) occasions on the right side and 16 (48.5%) occasions on the left side. The Pearson’s Chi-square test showed a statistically non-significant difference among the genders on the right side. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The most common configurations alveolar canal was the linear pattern followed by perpendicular pattern. Most frequent location of mental foramen was in continuity with second premolar in both the left and right sides as well as in both the genders. The anterior loop was the least common pattern of inferior alveolar canal.</p> Nivedita Mall Amrita Pritam Vidhi Srivastava Vasu Siddhartha Saxena Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 7 1 Antimicrobial effect of three recently developed restorative materials against streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus casei - an in-vitro study <p><strong>Objective : </strong>The aim of the study was to determine the antibacterial efficacy of three different restorative materials against <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> and <em>Lactobacillus casei.</em></p> <p><strong>Materials and methods : </strong>In the present study agar well diffusion method was applied to evaluate and compare antimicrobial efficacy of Fuji IX (GC Tokyo,Japan), Hi-dense (Shofu Inc,Kyoto,Japan) and Beautifil II (Shofu Inc,Kyoto,Japan) against <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> and <em>Lactobacillus casei</em>. Zone of inhibition was measured after at different time intervals that is 24hr,48hr,72hr and 7<sup>th</sup> day. <strong>Results:</strong> Hi-dense&nbsp; restorative material demonstrated the best antimicrobial efficacy&nbsp; against <em>Streptococcus mutans</em> followed by Fuji IX and Beautifil II. Most effective antibacterial&nbsp; restorative material&nbsp; against <em>Lactobacillus casei </em>was Fuji IX. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>All the tested restorative materials in present study demonstrated significant antimicrobial efficacy</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Antibacterial activity, Beautifil II, Fuji IX, Hi-Dense, <em>Lactobacillus casei</em>, <em>Streptococcus mutans</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sanjeev Srivastava Syed Haider Mehdi Harpreet Singh Chhabra Sandeep Dubey Arohan Singh Tripti Shahi Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-17 2021-03-17 7 1 Imaging approach to find Osteoporosis in Pre & Post Menopausal Women in Urban & Rural Area <p><strong>Background:</strong> The number of women with osteoporosis i.e. with reduced bone mass and disruption of bone architecture is gradually increasing in the Indian subcontinent and has been reported throughout the country. This condition majorly affects post-menopausal females and very often remains undiagnosed leading to various complications later. This study was therefore planned to ascertain the role of panoramic radiographs as a screening tool for osteoporosis using radio morphometric indices in postmenopausal women.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study comprised a study group of 60 post‑menopausal women, divided into 2 sub‑groups (Urban &amp; Rural), each comprising of 30 individuals, depending on their occupation and domicile. The panoramic radiographs of all the study subjects were recorded for evaluation of 3 radio-morphometric indices viz. Mandibular Cortical Index (MCI), Mental Index (MI) &amp; Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI).</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Statistical analysis revealed higher significant values for all the radio-morphometric indices in rural than in urban postmenopausal women.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study suggests that a panoramic radiograph can be used as an effective screening tool for osteoporosis using various radio-morphometric indices.</p> Saba Nasreen Shubham Kumar Pramod Yadav Raunaque Saba Devleena Bhowmick Haider Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-28 2021-03-28 7 1 Subjective and Quantifiable Analysis of Palatal Rugae Pattern in Punjab Population <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><u>Background</u>: - Palatal Rugae are irregular, asymmetric ridges of mucous membrane extending laterally from incisive papillae and anterior part of palatal raphe. Palatal rugae patterns are relatively unique to individuals and are well protected by lips, buccal pad of fat and teeth.</p> <p><u>Aims &amp; Objectives</u>: - The aim of the study was to identify pattern of palatal rugae in terms of number, size, and shape and also to compare rugae patterns in males and females of Punjab population.</p> <p><u>Materials &amp; Methods</u>: - A total of 280 maxillary casts that were randomly collected and were examined&nbsp; using graphite pencil and magnifying glass under adequate light&nbsp; with equal number of males &amp; females. Statistical analysis was done by T-test using SPSS software version 20.</p> <p><u>Results</u>: - The mean rugae were found to be more in females than males. Most prevalent form on basis of shape is found to be straight and on basis of size is primary form. Statistically, significant values were found in curved and secondary type, both more in females than males.</p> <p><u>Conclusion</u>: - Palatal rugae pattern is definitely a sufficient characteristic to discriminate between the genders. The present study highlighted the prevalence of palatal rugae in individuals of Punjab population. It is unique to an individual and can be used successfully in identification.</p> Jaswinder Kaur Ashima Bali Sumit Neha Salvina Grewal Yashoodeep Singh Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 7 1 A Comparison of Knowledge and Attitude Between Health Care and Non-health Care Undergraduate Students Towards Tobacco Smoking in Penang. <p>INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the prevalence of smoking among health care and non-health care undergraduate students in Penang. Further, the knowledge, awareness and attitude levels of the respondents were also discerned. Besides, the existence of any significant difference between the knowledge, awareness and attitude levels of the two groups was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: The population comprised the undergraduate students of Penang. Out of this population, a sample of 162 respondents were randomly selected. Survey questionnaires were given to the respondents to ascertain their prevalence of smoking and their knowledge, awareness and attitude towards smoking. Data was collected and both descriptive and inferential analysis were carried out using SPSS.</p> <p>RESULTS: There were proportionately less smokers among the healthcare respondents compared to the non-healthcare respondents. Additionally, it was also found that there existed a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the score for knowledge, awareness and attitude towards smoking (t=6.19, p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p>CONCLUSION: Thus health care students had a lower prevalence of smoking and had greater knowledge, awareness and attitude of the dangers of smoking and were possibly aided by their greater knowledge of the health sciences.</p> Senthil kumar Ganapathy kamaraj Loganathan Riddhi Chawla Bindu Vaithilingam Abin Varghese Tina varghese Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 7 1 “A Comparative Evaluation of The Wettability of Four Denture Base Materials to Three Commercially Available Saliva Substitute: An in Vitro Study” <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT:</em></strong></p> <p><strong>AIM<em>: </em></strong>The purpose of this study was to compare the wettability of three saliva substitute (Saleva, Wet Mouth and GC Dry Mouth) to four denture base materials (Heat cured, High Impact, Nylon and Cobalt – Chromium metal base).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A total of 60 samples were made, 15 each of the four denture based materials used that are Heat cure PMMA, High impact PMMA, Nylon based denture base and cobalt chromium based denture base. Three commercially available saliva substitutes Saleva, Wet Mouth and GC Dry Mouth were taken to compare the wettability of the denture base materials with the help of Contact Angle Goniometer.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>According to the result derived from this study, the nylon based denture base material was the most easily wettable denture base material while the greatest hysteresis value was offered by Wet Mouth saliva substitute.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>1. It was concluded that the nylon based denture base material was most easily wettable denture base material and Wet Mouth offered the greatest hysteresis value. 2. It was also concluded that the combination of nylon based denture base material and Wet Mouth offered the greatest retention.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Contact angle, denture base material, retention, saliva substitute, wettability</p> <p><strong>Source of support: </strong>Nil</p> <p><strong>Conflict of interest: </strong>None</p> Shitij Srivastava Abhinav Shekhar Amrita Jayaswal Love Kumar Bhatia Anshuman Chaturvedi Apurva Chaturvedi Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-20 2021-03-20 7 1 The comparison of surface hardness, water sorption and staining resistance between thermoplastic nylon and heat-cured acrylic resin. <p><strong><em>Aim:</em></strong> To evaluate and compare the surface hardness, water sorption and staining resistance of conventional heat cure and nylon denture base materials.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methods</em></strong><strong>:</strong> A total of 120 specimens, which comprises thirty from each denture base materials (Acralyn-H, DPI, Valplast and Flexident), were fabricated by investing metal specimen analogues of dimension 65x10x2.5mm strips for hardness, 50x0.5mm discs for water sorption and 20x1mm discs for staining resistance according to ADA specification no.12. The surface hardness was evaluated using Shore D Durometer. Water sorption was tested by the differences in the weight of the specimens by desiccating in calcium chloride and immersing in water for one week.&nbsp; The specimens were placed in a staining solution of 3% tartrazine for 7days. Staining resistance was evaluated by the optical density of the extraction solvent (ethanol) using spectrophotometer.</p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong> Heat cure acrylic denture base materials demonstrated more surface hardness compared to nylon based denture materials. Tukey’s HSD showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in the hardness of heat cure and nylon denture base materials. The water sorption values of Acralyn-H, DPI and Valplast were comparable and showed a statistically significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in the water sorption with Flexident. In staining resistance test, Valplast demonstrated more optical density whereas the optical densities of the others materials were comparable. Valplast materials displayed significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in staining resistance with heat cure denture base materials.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong> Both the heat cure denture base materials exhibited greatest surface hardness compared to the flexible denture base materials. Flexident displayed the lowest water sorption and Valplast had the least staining resistance.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong></p> <p>Polymethylmethacrylate, nylon denture base materials, staining resistance., urface hardness, water sorption,</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Aruna Kumari Samarla, Krishna Alla Deepika Bolisetty Yashika Bali Yashika Bali Prema Balehonnur Baburajan Kandasamy Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-05 2021-03-05 7 1 Comparative evaluation of Cention N and Amalgam in Class II posterior restorations. <p><strong>Aim of the study</strong>: To compare the clinical performance of Amalgam with Cention N in Class II cavities.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Methodology </strong>: After ethical approval, fifty patients were selected as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria and Class II cavities were prepared and divided into two groups by simple randomization. In one group the cavities were restored with Amalgam using standard protocols and in the second group the cavities were restored with Cention N. At 1 week, 3 months and 6 months the restorations were evaluated for parameters specified by modified USPHS Criteria for dental restorations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study showed that there was no significant difference in the performance of both the materials in the given time frame. It can therefore be concluded that Cention N can be used as an alternate to Amalgam in Class II posterior restorations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anshu Minocha Vishal Sharma Ashu Gupta Neha Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-02-02 2021-02-02 7 1 Assessment of Dental Student’s Knowledge & Attitude in The Practice of Communication Skills During Clinical Years <p>INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the knowledge and the attitude levels of &nbsp;dental College&nbsp; students in Malaysia pertaining to proper communication skills during clinical years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The population for this study was the dental students of a dental college in Malaysia and a sample of 80 respondents were used for this study. The respondents were given questionnaires which gauged their knowledge and attitude towards proper clinical communication. The questionnaires were collected and the data analysed using the SPSS statistical software.</p> <p>RESULTS: It was found that the sample had both satisfactory levels of knowledge (93.6%) and attitude (93.6 %). It was also found that there existed a significant relationship between knowledge and attitude level, (r = 0.541, α = 0.05).&nbsp; T-test findings indicated that there was no significant difference of knowledge and attitude levels between level 5 and level 4,(t= 0.156).</p> <p>CONCLUSION: Overall dental students were found to have satisfactory knowledge and attitude of proper communication skills and level of knowledge correlated significantly with attitude levels. Future researches should seek to find the relationship between knowledge and awareness of communication skills and patient satisfaction</p> <p>KEYWORDS: communication skills; dental students; knowledge; attitude level</p> Bindu Vaithilingam Kamraj Loganathan Riddhi Chawla Brayan Anthony Bruns Eunice Siaw Yin Xhuan Nur Hanani Nabila Binti Mohd Zulkalee Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 7 1 Perception of Students regarding online classes - adapting the New Normal <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has halted teaching in variety of institutions, especially in dental schools. Educational directors had to refined education from the formerly class based lecture into long distance/online training programme. This study directed to compute the impact of COVID-19 on dental education enquiring the students’ perception of this method of e-leaning.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>The study was held in Adesh Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Bathinda, Punjab, India, from April to May 2020 after formerly being approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. A survey was conducted disseminating an online questionnaire made on Google forms, which was further assessed and evaluated for its validity and reliability and further descriptive stats for procuring final results were applied.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total number of 310 students were considered for data analysis out of which 13.6% preferred online classrooms in comparison to 86.4% which were more inclined to offline classrooms. Our study on the BDS students’ perception revealed some supportive but also inhibitory factors</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>E-Learning programmes are a potent way for teaching dental students. However, lucrative, execution of online learning into the academics required a well-reasoned strategy and a more functioning approach.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Harmanpreet Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-11 2021-03-11 7 1 A surgeon’s dilemma: Evidence based selection of suturing technique to minimize post-operative complications following lower third molar surgical extraction <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Lower third molar extraction is usually associated with multiple stigmae that deters the patients in most cases to postpone or not seek appropriate surgical care. It is also one of the most feared procedure amongst dentists and dental students. However, evidence has been reported suggesting that the choice of suturing technique can have a profound effect on post-operation complications and thereby can improve the overall outlook and comfort of the patient. In the past, multiple techniques like Mattress, Continuous etc have been compared with tissue glues, staples however, a comparative clinical study amongst the simplest and most commonly used suturing techniques have not been reported.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods</strong></p> <p>Sixty patients with impacted mandibular third molars fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each. All patients underwent third molar extraction and sutures were placed using different techniques – Simple Interrupted (Group A), Continuous (Group B) and Figure of eight (Group C). Patients were evaluated pre-operatively as well post-operatively (at different time points) for five parameters - Pain, Swelling, Trismus, Periodontal health of second molar and Wound infection. Kruskal-Wallis (non-parametric ANOVA) with post-hoc and effect size was used for statistical analysis with <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05 as statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Statistically significant differences were obtained in terms of pain and trismus between Groups A and C post-operatively (P &lt; 0.05). There were also significant differences in pain between Groups B and C post-surgery (P &lt; 0.05). No significant differences were found between groups for swelling, periodontal health of second molar and wound infection.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>Figure of eight suturing presents with better patient outlook and is associated with lower pain, swelling and trismus. Continuous and simple interrupted suturing can be preferred as second-in-line techniques. Final choice of technique shall be made based on wound anatomy, patient history and surgeon’s expertise.</p> Shivani Jain Nupur Saxena Raj Singh Rana Nityanand Jain Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 7 1 A cross-sectional study to assess and compare the oral hygiene status, knowledge, perceptions amongst the students studying in government and private schools of rural areas of Chambal region <p>OBJECTIVE- To assess and compare the oral hygiene status, knowledge, perceptions amongst the age group of 10 to 15-year-old students studying in government and private schools of rural areas of the Chambal region.</p> <p>MATERIALS AND METHODS- The cross-sectional study was carried out at randomly selected secondary schools of the Chambal region carried out approximately for a period of 2 months. Prior permission to examine the children would be obtained from the appropriate authorities before starting the study and the survey will be scheduled accordingly. The informed written consent and verbal assent will be obtained from the parents as well as to children respectively before the study. The investigator underwent training and calibration in January and February 2019. First, the literature of the two indices was thoroughly reviewed and a discussion was conducted with the staff of the Department of Public Health Dentistry. A calibration exercise was then performed on 30 adolescents who were examined by the investigator, as well as a previously trained examiner. Cohen’s kappa values were calculated to assess the inter-examiner reliability. Substantial inter-rater agreement (ĸ = 0.80) was obtained.</p> <p>RESULT- The difference in the debris score between the private school children and government school children for the study population as a whole statistically significant (<em>P </em>= 0.01) The mean debris score for the private school children was 0.7829 and the mean debris score for government school children were 0.9457. The difference in the calculus score between the private school children and government school children for the study population as a whole not statistically significant (<em>P </em>= 0.21) The mean calculus score for the private school children was 0.8206 and the mean calculus score for government school children were 0.7192.</p> <p>CONCLUSION- The results of the study concluded that there were differences in oral health information obtained between public and private school students. This difference in the level of knowledge may be due to differences in the level of education between the two types of students. Students have responded well to engaging in oral health education for children and can undoubtedly be instrumental in this work. However, if schoolchildren are given the right training, learning materials, and support from dentists who are experienced in public health, it can bring about a change in the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of our country's students.</p> Piyanka Namdev Swati Goyal Ullas Saxena Kaushal Gangil Vivek Pathak Ashish Kushwah Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 7 1 Tunnel technique for maxillary and mandibular flabby ridge using palatal splinting tray system : Clinical report <p>Complete dentures function in the oral cavity of geriatric patients&nbsp; hence &nbsp;they must be&nbsp; in harmony with the normal neuromuscular system. ‘Fibrous’ or ‘flabby’ alveolar ridges pose significant problems&nbsp; during impression making&nbsp; retention and stability are compromised due to movable underlying tissue. These mobile den­ture-bearing &nbsp;&nbsp;tissues are displaced by masticatory forces and thus they alter the position of denture with resultant &nbsp;loss of peripheral seal. Forces that are exerted during impression making cause &nbsp;distortion of mobile tissues.&nbsp; Resulting&nbsp; in instability af­fecting function. In this paper, the authors have proposed a newer technique of impression making of the flabby tissues along with the application of neutral zone concept is also incorporated into impression making which ensures an accurate and easy impression of these flabby tissues leading to successful complete denture therapy</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> prerna chandak Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-06-09 2021-06-09 7 1 131 136 10.21276//ujds.2021.7.1.29 Is a teledentistry an opportunity in a COVID-19 pandemic? : A review <p><strong><u>Abstract:</u></strong> The World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 pandemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Despite global efforts to contain the disease spread, the outbreak is still on a rise because of the community spread pattern of this infection. Dental professionals are at high risk for nosocomial infection and can become potential carriers of the disease. The global lockdown of educational institutions is going to cause major disruption to students’ learning and cancellation of their yearly assessments. Shifting to online learning is needed in this era and effective in implementing dental virtual simulation in preclinical and clinical courses during pandemics is needed. Teledentistry has the potential to change the dynamics of the dental care delivery system. Therefore, Teledentistry can save a life by freeing up an emergency room bed and dental industry can play a vital role in flattening the curve in COVID-19 pandemic situation.</p> Mayank Das Mandar Todkar Mohsin Khan Jyoti Adwani Omveer Singh Shitanshu Malhotra Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 7 1 Endodontic management of Mandibular Premolar with Two Roots <p><em>Abstract</em></p> <p>Thorough knowledge about the anatomy and morphology of tooth root canal system is the key for successful outcome of endodontic treatment. False assumptions about the canal anatomy of teeth may lead to misdiagnosis, missed canals, improper debridement and breakage of instruments within the root canal during treatment and moreover the persistent pain to patient. Teeth often shows changes in their anatomy of the pulp chamber and root canal system which brings challenge to clinician. Mandibular first premolar shows very low incidence of variations in its root canal system. But for successful root canal treatment these variations had to be kept in mind and to take in consideration for proper cleaning and shaping. &nbsp;</p> Charu Thanvi Akansha Jharwal Anubha Sejra Gaurang Thanvi Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 7 1 Metal Endocrown – Novel Restorative option for Mutilated teeth; A Case Report <p class="Default"><span lang="EN-US">Extensively damaged endodontically treated molars pose a constant challenge for the practitioner. Although the classical post and core restoration is widely used in dentistry, its invasiveness has been criticized worldwide. Minimally invasive crown preparation preserving the maximum amount of tooth structure is considered to be the main objective for restoring teeth. Bindl and Mormann described the concept of endocrown in 1999 to limit the use of root anchorages. This case report illustrates this restorative option for functional rehabilitation of a devitalized mandibular molar, presenting with a small amount of remaining coronal tooth structure.</span></p> Neha Mittal Prachi Mital Ashwini B Prasad Lalita Poonia Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 7 1 Pouch and tunnel technique in conjunction with connective tissue graft-A Paramount for treating Miller’s class II gingival recession <p><u>Introduction</u> : Gingival recession is both unpleasant and unesthetic, therefore demanding esthetic correction. Pouch and Tunnel technique with CTG is a minimally invasive quick healing alternative for recession coverage effectively.</p> <p><u>Objective :</u> The objective of this case was to achieve complete root coverage of exposed root using pouch and tunnel technique with connective tissue graft for optimal patient compliance.</p> <p><u>Methodology</u>- After local anesthesia, at the recipient site sulcular incision was made, pouch and tunnel was created, any remaining collagen fibres, muscle fibres were cut. Papillae were kept intact. Connective tissue graft was harvested from palate area using a single incision technique, which was then inserted into recipient pouch and tunnel.</p> <p>Sutures were placed to hold graft in position, the entire gingivo-papillary complex was then coronally positioned and sutured, periodontal pack was applied. To hold gingivo-papillary complex in coronal position, composite stops were made pre-surgically.</p> <p>Result : The surgical site appeared normal without any trace of sloughing, healing progressed uneventfuly and the gingival recession was partially covered with satisfactory aesthetic result.</p> <p>Conclusion : Pouch and Tunnel technique proved to be minimally invasive technique showing optimal root coverage with good patient compliance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Poonam Yadav Poonam Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-11 2021-03-11 7 1 Orthodontic extrusion of a subgingivally fractured maxillary central incisor using 'J' hook: A Multidisciplinary case report. <p>Traumatic injuries to permanent maxillary anterior teeth are seen commonly in children. Restoration of these traumatically injured teeth are always a clinical challenge for a predictable aesthetic outcome. This case report describes a multidisciplinary approach of a subgingivally fractured maxillary permanent central incisor by endodontic therapy, orthodontic extrusion using J-hook, fiber post placement, core build-up followed by surgical gingival recountouring using electro-cautery to reestablish the biological width. Finally esthetics was restored using porcelain fused to metal crown.</p> Shagun Agarwal Suleman Abbas Khan Saumya Navit Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 7 1 Disease in Disguise: The Mystic Extra Oral Sinus-A Case Report <p>Extra oral sinus tracts of odontogenic origin may be confused with a wide variety of diseases. Thus, the differential diagnosis of this clinical dilemma is of utmost importance in providing definitive treatment. Misdiagnosis of such condition may result in unnecessary treatments attributing to patient agony. For this reason, a dental origin must always be considered for any cutaneous lesion on the face or neck. Once the correct diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment, either through tooth extraction or endodontic therapy to eliminate the source of infection, is simple and effective.</p> Deeksha Khurana Deepak Raisingani Ashwini B Prasad Saloni Gattani Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 7 1 Excision of Lower Lip Mucocele Using Scalpel and Diode Laser: Two Case Reports <p>The term “Mucocele” originates from Latin words ‘mucus’ which means ‘fluid’ and ‘coele’ which means ‘cavity’. It is defined as the accumulation of mucus in the oral cavity’s subepithelial tissue secreted from salivary glands and their ducts. It is a frequently occurring salivary gland lesion which is seen in the oral cavity. They occur as mucus extravasation and mucus retention type. They may be obstructive in nature and occur due to trauma to a minor salivary gland duct which results in pooling in the epithelial tissue. Clinically, a mucocele appears as a typical blue colored dome shaped swelling which is soft in consistency and contains salivary fluid. It lies superficial or deeply attached to the tissues.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Management of mucocele includes surgical excision, marsupialization, micro marsupialization, cryosurgery, laser vaporization, and laser excision. Recently, high - intensity lasers have been proven to be more beneficial than conventional surgery as it causes prompt hemostasis, minimal blood loss and reduced healing time of the site.</p> Md. Ajmal Roli Dureha Suleman A Khan Saumya Navit Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 7 1 Verrucous carcinoma in association with oral submucous fibrosis <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong> -Oral verrucous carcinoma is a form of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma characterized by exophytic over growth. It is slow growing and locally invasive tumor occurring in 6&nbsp;<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;and 7&nbsp;<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;decade of life. Smoking and chewing tobacco is found to be the most common etiological factor of verrucous carcinoma although oral leukoplakia may act as a predisposing factor. This is a rare case of oral verrucous Carcinoma seen in association with oral submucous fibrosis in a young adult patient with history of chewing gutkha and smoking.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mahima Tyagi Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 7 1 Dentistry to Dermatology- A Rare Case of Segmental Odontomaxillary Dysplasia <p>Jawbones have various properties that result from their peculiar embryonic development. Jawbones play a pivotal role in anchoring teeth. Any disturbance in their development leads to the pathology of the jaw and their surrounding structures. Since these pathologies develop from the jaw they have typical clinical radiographic and histologic features. The case report highlights the importance of prompt diagnosis which will lead to proper treatment and counselling of the patient.</p> <p>This is a case report of 12 years old female patient who came to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology with a chief complaint of caries. Later, on examination, the unusual swelling in the maxilla was noted with the patient being completely unaware and asymptomatic. On correlating various clinical radiographic and histologic features a rarest of rare concealed pathology of jaw bone was unshielded.</p> chetna joshi Vikram Khare Adeeba Saleem Supriya Naren Sukanya Das Mehul Waghla Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-20 2021-03-20 7 1 Oral capillary hemangioma mimicking gingival polyp: A Case Report <p>Hemangioma is a relatively common benign proliferation of blood vessels that primarily develops during childhood. Two main forms of hemangioma recognized: capillary and cavernous. The capillary form presents as a flat area consisting of numerous small capillaries. Cavernous hemangioma appears as an elevated lesion of a deep red color, and consists of large dilated sinuses filled with blood. The present case report is an presentation of gingival growth, which was clinically diagnosed as gingival polyp but histopathologically as capillary haemangioma. These lesions present as a diagnostic dilemma to the clinician and can lead to serious complications if not carefully managed. The purpose of the case report is to present the case of a capillary hemangioma in a patient and to describe the successful treatment of this case.</p> Dr. Ira Gupta Dr. Rohit Gupta Dr. Saranik Sarkar Dr. Deepika Trivedi Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-04 2021-03-04 7 1 Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumour Associated With Dentigerous Cyst: A Rare Case Report <p>Adenomatoid Odontogenic tumour is an uncommon benign lesion of odontogenic origin which affects young individuals mostly in second decade of life, with a female predominance. AOT is most commonly located in anterior maxilla usually associated with impacted canine. Through this paper we present a rare entity - Adenomatoid Odontogenic tumour with dentigerous cyst associated to impacted canine and lateral incisor in anterior maxilla in a 15 year old male patient.</p> Sadiya Khan Divya Pandya Shreya Dubey Priyanka Dausage Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 7 1 A Mucocele on Dorsal Surface of Tongue: A Unique Case Report <p>Mucocele is a one of the most common oral lesions resulting from mucous accumulation in the minor salivary glands. The extravasation mucocele is most commonly located in the lower lip whereas retention mucoceles can be found at any other site.&nbsp; Treatment frequently involves surgical removal in addition to Micro marsupialization, cryosurgery, steroid injections and lasers. In this case report diode lasers are considered as treatment of choice as the mucocele was resting very near to the lingual artery. The use of a diode laser appears to present a good alternative treatment to remove mucocele in paediatric patients.</p> Surabhi Mohase Binti Rani Chand Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-03-03 2021-03-03 7 1 Apexification with apical growth and closure using Metapex in a Necrotic Immature Permanent Tooth with Periapical abscess: A Case Report with 16 months follow-up. <p>The purpose of this report is to present the case of a patient wherein apexification of an immature permanent maxillary left central incisor tooth was induced by the Metapex paste (Calcium hydroxide and Iodoform). It has been reported in the literature of dentistry that apexification treatment in teeth with open apex is more than 40 years old. Apexification procedures had been carried out in different ways using various techniques and materials. Regardless of the type of materials used for apexification method by different authors, apexification procedures appear to be the most subtle and accepted clinical practice in non-vital young permanent teeth. In our case, radiographic examination showed the start of apical closure 6 months after the completion of the treatment protocol. The growth of root end and complete apical closure was confirmed 16 months after the treatment, indicating the implausible potential of Metapex to induce apical growth and closure in young permanent tooth with periapical lesion.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Vipin Ahuja Annapurna Ahuja Jaya Verma Arunima Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 1