UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES <p><strong>( An official publication of Aligarh Muslim University)</strong></p> Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University en-US UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2395-5090 COVID-19 AND CHALLENGES TO SCIENTIFIC WORLD Reggie Reddy Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-28 2021-01-28 6 3 i ii 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.edi A photogrammetric and cephalometric evaluation of facial symmetry and smile in relation to attractiveness. <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Human find symmetrical face more attractive than are asymmetrical faces. The smile is one of the most important facial expressions and is essential in expressing friendliness, agreement, and appreciation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between smile and symmetry in attributing to attractiveness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Method: </strong>The study was conducted in the Department Of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, on 150 samples. 150 good quality radiographs and photographs of the patients were obtained. The subjects were divided into three groups:&nbsp; Group I – Horizontal growth pattern Group II – Average growth pattern Group III – Vertical growth pattern. The frontal facial photograph and PA cephalometric radiograph were used to assess the facial symmetry. Posed smile photograph and Lateral cephalometric radiograph were used to assess the smile. Digimizer Image Analyzer (bvba software) were used for the analysis. The ratings were given by the expert panellist based on attractiveness</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the present study, Left facial symmetry parameters is marginally higher than right side in cephalometric analysis and converse for photographic analysis, right facial symmetry parameters is marginally higher than left side but this is not statistically significant. There are no statistically significant difference among the groups for smile -photographic parameters and lateral cephalometric smile parameters. There is statistically significant difference among the groups for Visual Analog Scale readings for attractiveness given by orthodontist, general dentist and layperson for frontal profile for the subjects of three study groups.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study revealed that in cephalometric analysis, left hemiface is wider than right hemiface while in photographic analysis, right hemiface is wider than left hemiface. Vertical grower shows maximum upper incisor exposure and upper and lower vermilion lip thickness. On the contrary full smile length was minimum in vertical grower. The most favored profile by VAS was horizontal growth pattern.</p> Akshita Arun K. Chauhan Riddhi Chawla Copyright (c) 2020 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 1 8 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.1 A Comparative evaluation of serum CRP levels in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy- a clinical study <p><strong>Aims and Objectives: </strong>C-reactive protein is an acute-phase-reactant primarily produced by the liver in response to infection or trauma. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between periodontitis and elevated CRP levels. This study aims to relate the serum-CRP level in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients, before and after periodontal treatment, with healthy controls.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method: </strong>&nbsp;A case-control clinical study was conducted with a total of 75 systemically healthy subjects, where 25 subjects were selected in each groups: Group I, Healthy control subjects; Group II, generalized chronic periodontitis patients, and Group III, generalized aggressive periodontitis patients. Serum-CRP levels were quantified by using turbidimetric immunoassay at baseline and 3month post-treatment. Kit used was “TURBILYTE-CRP” (Tulip Diagnostics, Goa, India). In the treatment phase, patients received single visit nonsurgical periodontal treatment, completed within 24hrs under LA for GCP &amp; GAP group.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean serum CRP levels were significantly higher in both GCP and GAP groups as compared to the control group at baseline. On comparing the clinical parameters at 3 months post-treatment for GCP &amp; GAP group with control group values, the mean score of serum CRP levels for the GAP group was statistically significant (P&lt;0.001) in comparison to the GCP group, which in turn was statistically significant as compared to control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study indicates a positive correlation between CRP and periodontal disease severity with particular concern in younger individuals, where it could be a possible underlying pathway in the association between periodontal disease and risk for cardiovascular disease in periodontitis patients.</p> Shruti Gupta Ira Gupta Rohit Gupta Janardhana Amaranath B J Arpita Goswami Deepshikha Singh Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 9 15 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.2 The effect of 5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, at 24hrs and 8days, on the microhardness of MTA, Biodentine and Pozzolan cement: An in- vitro study. <p><strong><em>Aim &amp; Objectives: </em></strong><em>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects, at 24 h and 8 days, of 5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA on the Vicker’s microhardness of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate(MTA Angelus) (MTAA), Biodentine(Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosse’s France) and Pozzolan based endodontic cement named Endocem MTA(Maruchi, Wonju, Korea).</em></p> <p><strong><em>Materials and method:</em></strong><em> Sixty samples of MTAA, Biodentine and Endocem MTA were tested for baseline microhardness at 24 h. They were divided into 12 subgroups (5% NaOCl or 17% EDTA, 24 h and 5% NaOCl or 17% EDTA at 8 days) and microhardness was evaluated at different time points. Results were recorded and analysed statistically via one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc&nbsp; test.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Results:</em></strong><em> MTAA had a higher baseline microhardness than both biodentine and Endocem MTA. At 24 hrs, the microhardness of all the materials was reduced by NaOCl and EDTA. At 8 days, NaOCl reduced the microhardness of MTA but that of Biodentine and Endocem MTA was increased. EDTA at 8 days, reduced the microhardness of both MTAA and Biodentine but an increase was seen with Endocem MTA.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion: </em></strong><em>Changes in microhardness of MTAA, Biodentine and Pozzolan cement(Endocem MTA) were associated with the time for which the materials are allowed to set as well as the irrigating agent used,.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Sarita Dasani Baljeet S Hora Rucheeta S Ajmera Brijesh Gupta Yadnesh Dondulkar Suparna Kosta Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 3 16 21 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.5 Comparative evaluation of dentinal crack after using reciprocating and continuous single file systems: An invitro study. <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The most critical stage in every endodontic procedure is the biomechanical preparation. Variations in tip designs, taper, and rake angles account for stress concentration and dehydration in dentinal contact walls during root canal instrumentation leading to crack formation. The present study aimed to evaluate dentinal crack formation during root canal instrumentation using various file systems.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Eighty extracted mandibular premolars were selected and divided into three groups. Study samples in Group I (n=32) group IA {Wave One Gold (WOG)}, and group IB {Reciproc (R25)} were prepared with reciprocating files; in Group II (n=32) group IIA {OneShape (OS)}, and group IIB {F360 (F6)} with continuous file system and Group III was control group (unprepared teeth, n=16). Samples were sectioned horizontally to long axis of root at 3, 6, and 9 mm of root, and were subjected to stereomicroscope examination at 25X magnification to analyze the crack propagation.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: All the study groups showed cracks. Group WOG manifested statistically fewer microcracks in roots when compared with other groups and F6 showed the maximum number of microcracks. The relation was found to be significant among all the experimental groups (p-value &lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>All single file systems can initiate cracks during root space preparation. Wave One Gold system was proved to be most efficient, followed by other single file instruments.</p> Vivek Kumar Pathak Kanchi Jain Ashish Sharma Kaushal Singh Tarun Saxena Kushal Gangli Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 22 26 Comparison of the microleakage between two different flowable composite resin restorations with 8th generation bond system in Class II cavity: An in vitro stereomicroscopic study. <p><strong>Introduction</strong> Marginal adaptability of composite resins is one of the prime factors for the success of class II cavity restoration. <strong>Materials and Methodology</strong>: Forty non-carious extracted mandibular molar with fully formed apices were collected and Class II box type cavities were prepared on both mesial and distal surfaces of every tooth using a new straight fissure diamond bur and high-speed airrotor handpiece. According to the type of restorative materials used, teeth were divided into Group I (n=20): Restored with SDR (Smart Dentin Replacement) and Group II (n=20): Restored with Tetric Eva Flow Bulk Fill. After 24 hours of storage in distilled water at 37˚C, the restored specimens were subjected to artificial aging by thermocycling. The teeth were then immersed in a 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours. All samples were cut longitudinally through the center of the restorations with the help of an isomet diamond saw. The sections were then observed under a stereomicroscope at 25X for scoring the depth of dye penetration at cervical and axial walls toward the pulp. <strong>Results:</strong> Mean score of Group Ia is 0.4±0.83 and Ib was 0.55±0.88 respectively while the mean score of Group IIa was 0.75±1.118 and in IIb was 0.75±1.019 respectively. Microleakage was found to be highest in Group IIa and minimum in Group Ia. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Use of a flowable composite SDR above and below the CEJ in Class II composite resin restorations showed good results.</p> Kaushal Singh Amit Garg Rajnish K Singhal Anurag Jain Neha Agarawal Vivek Kumar Pathak Copyright (c) 2020 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 6 3 78 83 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.4 Ex vivo comparative evaluation of efficacy of disinfecting ability of garlic oil, neem oil, clove oil and tulsi oil with autoclaving on endodontic K files, tested against aerobic bacteria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study aims for comparative evaluation of efficacy of disinfecting ability of garlic oil, neem oil, clove oil and tulsi oil with autoclaving on endodontic k files tested against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.<strong> Materials and Methods: </strong>50 endodontic K-file were used in oral cavity as sample size, which were immersed into 4 different herbal oils and were checked for its disinfecting ability with three different methods. <strong>Results</strong>: In this study garlic oil is more effective against aerobic bacteria when compared to neem oil, clove oil and tulsi oil.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Garlic oil can be used as an alternative method to autoclave against aerobic bacteria but autoclave is a gold standard disinfecting method for sterilization.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asna Isani Updesh Masih Kairavi Joshi Copyright (c) 2020 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 27 31 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.6 Prevalence and aetiology of dental trauma in 8-14 year old school-going children of Hyderabad city, India <p>Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and etiology of fractured anterior teeth due to trauma among 8–14 years old school going children of Hyderabad city.</p> <p>Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 8-14 year old children studying in various schools of Hyderabad for the assessment of traumatic injuries of anterior teeth. Clinical examination was carried out and type of teeth affected, type of fracture, overjet and lip competence were noted. A closed end questionnaire was given to children with questions regarding etiology of trauma, place of injury, symptoms or outcomes after the injury, whether a dentist was consulted, type of treatment done by dentist and time elapsed between trauma and treatment. All the results were analyzed using “statistical package for social sciences” (SPSS) 20.0 software.</p> <p>Results: The prevalence of dental trauma was found to be 7.84%. 11-14year old children showed higher prevalence. Males were more affected than females. Maxillary central incisors were most affected. Fracture involving enamel and dentin were recorded the highest. Children having overjet of &gt;3mm and incompetent lips were at a higher risk of dental trauma (p value = 0.001). The most common cause of injury was sports and home was the most common place of occurrence of injury. Most of the traumatic dental injuries (TDI) did not undergo any treatment.</p> <p>Conclusion: Increasing the awareness of the parents and teachers about the prevention of TDI and the importance of consulting the dentist after trauma should be instituted.</p> Tanzeem Ahmed Nikhil Kaushal Sujeet Singh Rashmi Agarwal Copyright (c) 2020 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 6 3 32 38 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.14 The association of oral health-related behaviour and dental caries among 6 -7 year old school children of Wilsonia Pakwara Moradabad : Across sectional study <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Aim</strong>: To find out the association between oral health related behavior and dental caries</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the 6-7-year-old students of Wilsonian school, DFT was clinically assessed at the first visit and a validated questionnaire was distributed among the parents of the students. The questionnaire consists of the three main questions, one regarding the tooth brushing Frequency that was &nbsp;assessed by the following question: “How many times a day does your child brush his/her teeth?” with the answers of “twice or more/day,” “once/day,” “less than once/day,” and “do not know.” These answers were recorded as “twice or more/day; coded 1” and “less than twice/day (including ‘do not know’); coded 2”. Another question regarding the drinking sugar-sweetened beverages frequency was assessed by the following question: “How often does your child drink sugar-sweetened beverages?” with the answers of “several times/month or never; coded 1,” “once/week; coded 2,” “2- 3 times/week; coded 3,” “4-6 times/week; coded 4,” “once/day; coded 5” and “twice or more/day; coded 6.” .The Third question was regarding “Snack-eating habits” that was assessed by the following question: “When does your child eat snacks?” with the answer of “does not eat snacks; coded 1,” “eats snacks at a set time; coded 2” and “eats snacks freely whenever he/she wants; coded 3.”</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Poor oral behavior was &nbsp;associated with higher DFT after adjusting for all covariates Toothbrushing frequency, frequency of drinking sugar-sweetened beverages and snack-eating habits (OR=1.49,CI-1.17-1.89) (OR=2.01,95% CI=1.27,3.18) and (OR=1.83,95%CI=1.14,2.92) associated with DFT,</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: improving children’s oral health behavior might decrease their dental caries</p> <p>by Strengthening their self-control.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS</strong></p> <p>Child, child dentistry, dental caries, oral health behavior</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sabzar Abdullah Mahbooba Khazir Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 39 43 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.7 Factors for crowding in the early mixed dentition stage <p><strong>Objective:</strong>&nbsp; To&nbsp; find&nbsp; out&nbsp; the&nbsp; factors&nbsp; responsible&nbsp; for&nbsp; crowding&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; early&nbsp; mixed&nbsp; dentition.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials&nbsp; and&nbsp; methods:</strong>&nbsp; 60&nbsp; dental&nbsp; casts&nbsp; of&nbsp; children&nbsp; in&nbsp; their&nbsp; early&nbsp; mixed&nbsp; dentition&nbsp; (&nbsp; 30&nbsp; boys&nbsp; and&nbsp; 30&nbsp; girls)&nbsp; were&nbsp; divided&nbsp; into&nbsp; crowded&nbsp; and&nbsp; noncrowded&nbsp; groups.&nbsp; Comparison&nbsp; were&nbsp; made&nbsp; between&nbsp; the&nbsp; two&nbsp; groups&nbsp; according&nbsp; to&nbsp; following&nbsp; criterion:&nbsp; -(1) space&nbsp; available&nbsp; for&nbsp; permanent&nbsp; lower&nbsp; incisors, (2) total&nbsp; incisor&nbsp; width, (3) deciduous&nbsp; intermolar&nbsp; width, (5) permanent&nbsp; intermolar&nbsp; width, (6) interalveolar&nbsp; width, (7) total&nbsp; arch&nbsp; length.&nbsp; Correlation&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; measurements&nbsp; with&nbsp; crowding&nbsp; was&nbsp; also&nbsp; evaluated.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Statistical&nbsp; analysis &nbsp;used:</strong> Data &nbsp;was &nbsp;analysed &nbsp;using &nbsp;STATA-12.0 &nbsp;(STATA &nbsp;SE, &nbsp;StataCorp., Texas, &nbsp;USA). &nbsp;Means, &nbsp;standard &nbsp;deviation, &nbsp;and &nbsp;medians &nbsp;were &nbsp;calculated &nbsp;for &nbsp;describing &nbsp;the data. &nbsp;Data &nbsp;was&nbsp;&nbsp; tested &nbsp;for &nbsp;normality &nbsp;using &nbsp;Shapiro-Wilks &nbsp;test. &nbsp;Since &nbsp;all &nbsp;variables &nbsp;were found &nbsp;to &nbsp;be &nbsp;non-normally &nbsp;distributed, &nbsp;therefore &nbsp;comparison &nbsp;of &nbsp;all &nbsp;measurements &nbsp;between the &nbsp;crowded &nbsp;and &nbsp;non-crowded &nbsp;groups &nbsp;was &nbsp;done &nbsp;using &nbsp;Wilcoxon &nbsp;ranksum &nbsp;test &nbsp;(Mann-Whitney test). &nbsp;All &nbsp;values &nbsp;were &nbsp;considered &nbsp;statistically &nbsp;significant &nbsp;for &nbsp;a &nbsp;value &nbsp;of &nbsp;p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; Mandibular&nbsp; deciduous&nbsp; intercanine&nbsp; width&nbsp; was&nbsp; significantly&nbsp; larger&nbsp; in&nbsp; Noncrowded&nbsp; Group.&nbsp; The&nbsp; space&nbsp; available&nbsp; for&nbsp; the&nbsp; mandibular&nbsp; permanent&nbsp; incisors&nbsp; and&nbsp; total&nbsp; arch&nbsp; length&nbsp; were&nbsp; significantly&nbsp; larger&nbsp; in&nbsp; Noncrowded&nbsp; Group.&nbsp; The&nbsp; correlation&nbsp; analysis&nbsp; indicated&nbsp; significant&nbsp; correlations&nbsp; between&nbsp; crowding&nbsp; and&nbsp; available&nbsp; space,&nbsp; intercanine&nbsp; width,&nbsp; intermolar&nbsp; width&nbsp; I.&nbsp; No&nbsp; significant&nbsp; correlation&nbsp; was&nbsp; found&nbsp; between&nbsp; crowding&nbsp; and&nbsp; intermolar&nbsp; width&nbsp; II,&nbsp; permanent&nbsp; intermolar&nbsp; width,&nbsp; and&nbsp; interalveolar&nbsp; width.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp; Procedures&nbsp; which&nbsp; preserve&nbsp; the&nbsp; arch&nbsp; length&nbsp; such&nbsp; as&nbsp; timely&nbsp; restoration&nbsp; of&nbsp; proximal&nbsp; caries,&nbsp; prevention&nbsp; of&nbsp; premature&nbsp; loss&nbsp; of&nbsp; deciduous&nbsp; teeth&nbsp; and&nbsp; use&nbsp; of&nbsp; space&nbsp; maintainers&nbsp; such&nbsp; as&nbsp; lingual&nbsp; arch&nbsp; may&nbsp; prove&nbsp; useful&nbsp; in&nbsp; alleviating&nbsp; crowding.</p> Karuna Sharma Anil Kohli Ashish Katiyar Sujit Panda Rahul Katyayan Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 44 49 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.10 A split mouth clinical study to compare Subepithelial connective tissue graft and Guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of Miller’s class I and II gingival recession. <p><strong>ABSTRACT </strong></p> <p>Background: Gingival recession (GR) can result in hypersensitivity, esthetic concern to the patient, and chances for root caries. The purpose of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effect of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure using a bioabsorbable collagen membrane in comparison to autogenous Subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for root coverage in Miller’s class I and II gingival recession defects.</p> <p>Materials and methods: In this split mouth study, 10 patients with 20 contralateral Miller’s class I or II recession defects were randomly treated with coronally advanced flap using either Subepithelial connective tissue graft (control group)&nbsp; or resorbable collagen membrane (experimental group). The clinical evaluations were done using plaque index, gingival index, height of gingival recession, probing sulcus depth and clinical attachment level at baseline, 3 and 6 months post- operatively.</p> <p>Results: Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and student’s t test was used for comparisons. P value &lt;0.01 was considered to be significant. Both the groups showed complete resolution of the defects at 6 months post operatively. Inter group comparison between both the groups at 6 months showed no statistically significant differences in any of the clinical parameters.</p> <p>Conclusion:&nbsp; Predictable outcome were observed in both the groups and indicated that collagen based guided tissue regeneration membrane i.e. ProGide can be safely used.</p> Kamal Garg D V G Naidu Udayan Gupta Yogesh Garg Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 50 57 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.3 Effect of different mouth washes as a pre-procedural rinse to combat aerosol contamination– A cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Ultrasonic scaling is a potent source of aerosol generation in dental offices, thus causing increase risk of bacterial infections. Pre-procedural mouth rinsing has been found effective in reducing the bacterial load of the aerosol produced during the procedure. <strong>Aim and objectives</strong>: the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two different mouthwashes containing Chlorhexidine and Octenidine with distilled water, by using them as preprocedural rinsing agents in reducing the bacterial load of the aerosol produced by ultrasonic scaler. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>80 subjects aged 18-35years &nbsp;were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of mouth rinses used for preprocedural mouthrinsing - Group 1: Distilled Water (Control), Group 2: 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), Group 3: 0.1% Octenidine. The aerosols were collected on agar plates placed and stabilized on patient’s as well as on operator’s chest. all the agar plates were sent for microbiological analysis to the microbiological laboratory for Colony Forming Unit (CFU) count on the same day of ultrasonic scaling procedure. The data obtained was subjected to the statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. <strong>Result: </strong>At all locations, the mean CFU was significantly highest in Group I, followed by Group II and Group III. It was observed that aerosol generation on patients was significantly more than operator. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>In our study 0.1% octenidine was found to be most effective preprocedural mouthwash in reducing the bacterial load in the aerosol produced during ultrasonic scaling followed by 0.2% chlorhexidine and distilled water.</p> Shivaraj Warad Ravi V Bhatagunaki Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 58 62 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.8 Prevalence of oral mucosal lesion in peri-urban area of Lucknow city (Uttar Pradesh) <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>. The oral mucosa performs essential protective functions that &nbsp;affect the general health of the patient. Oral lesions can cause discomfort or pain that interferes with mastication, swallowing, and speech. <strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in periurban area in the city of Lucknow aged 15 years and above. <strong>Settings and Design: </strong>A multistage random sampling was done for identifying the study sample. <strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong> In the first stage. all &nbsp;peri-urban areas of Lucknow city was grouped into four geographical zones. Second stage consisted of random selection of 20 peri-urban areas by lottery method (5 from each zone).&nbsp; In third stage there was selection of individuals using simple random method. A total of 45 individuals was selected. Thus a total 900 individuals was selected (i.e. 225 from each zone). <strong>Results</strong>: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesion in the present study was found to be 11.8%.&nbsp; The percentage of patients suffering from leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis&nbsp; and lichen planus was 51.9%, 20.8% &amp; 11.3% respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This survey high-lighted the rampant misuse of variety of harmful substances as well as the high prevalence of oral lesions in the community.</p> Pallavi Singh Shitanshu Malhotra Neha Agarwal Gaurav Mishra Himangi Dubey Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 3 63 67 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.12 Prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in Bihar and Jharkhand- A multicentric study <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Dentine hypersensitivity is a common oral problem. This pilot study investigated the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in the diverse population across four centres of Bihar and Jharkhand.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A multi-stage, random sampling method was used to investigate the study population. A total of 5622 subjects were examined at four centres in Bihar and Jharkhand. Subjects were divided into 8 age groups. Participants completed a dentine hypersensitivity questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. The diagnosis of dentine hypersensitivity was confirmed. Gingival recession of sensitive teeth was measured by a Williams periodontal probe.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 5622 subjects, 1253 were found to be suffering from dentin hypersensitivity indicating a prevalence of 22.28%. Females were more prone to dentin hypersensitivity with male to female ratio of 1:1.31. While subjects in age group of 50-59 were predominantly affected, the molars and premolars were commonly affected with dentin hypersensitivity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in East India was 22.28%, indicating that it is a common condition. For its effective management, public education about the condition and effective treatment of dentine hypersensitivity are required.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clinical Significance: </strong>Assessment of prevalence of hypersensitivity in this demographical location would enable the dental care health workers to devise strategies to educate masses about the prevention and management of this disease</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sumit Mohan Jyoti Thakur Santosh Kumar Verma Rima Jaiswal Abhishek Verma Shresth Kumar Bhagat Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 3 68 73 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.13 Gingival enlargement in thalassemia patient – A Conjectural Association <p>Thalassemia is a single gene inherited blood disease. Beta thalassemia major is life threating. It causes abnormality in various organs and oral-facial region. Thalassemia patients are immune-deficient because of iron-overload. Immune system abnormality includes neutrophilic dysfunction and impairment of phagocytosis by the monocyte-macrophage system. Iron accumulation also affects periodontal tissues, which seems to increase the level of cytokines and thus have an enhancing effect on gingival inflammation. This article highlights a peculiar case of gingival enlargement in anterior maxilla and mandible. The patient was known case of a beta-thalassemia major. Blood investigation revealed a lower level of hemoglobin. The patient underwent non-surgical periodontal therapy. Proper periodontal care improves the quality of life in these patients. This case report reinforces the significance of proper history taking with all minor details and the role of patient education in phase I therapy</p> CS BAIJU Gunjan Gupta Karuna Joshi shagufta N.D Gupta Copyright (c) 2020 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 6 3 74 77 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.15 Dental Caries and pre-term birth - A meta-analysis <p><img src="/public/site/images/sakshi/Abstract.PNG"></p> Sakshi Shukla Manu Batra Deeksha Gijwani Thounaujam Leimaton Copyright (c) 2020 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 84 87 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.9 A rare case of maxillary sinus cancer that involve the orbit and adjacent structures <p>43year old male diagnosed as case of Maxillary sinus cancer that involved the orbit. CT scan of face revealed large ill defined extensively infiltrated soft tissue mass of 7*5*4.4 cm in maxillary sinus which extended to infratemporal fossa and erosion of floor of the right orbit with infiltration of right inferior rectus muscle. The prognosis of maxillary sinus cancer with involvement adjacent structures is not very good (usually diagnosed at an advanced stage), so to attain an improved result it was essential to secure adequate resection of margins. So we followed a standard treatment protocol that was total maxillectomy with orbital exenteration, followed by postoperative radiation therapy.</p> Atish Kundu Sardar Singh Yadav Vinay Kumar Anurag Vats Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 88 91 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.16 A Study of anxiety and fear level in dental practitioners from coronavirus and need of clinical practice modification to combat Covid -19 <p>An outbreak of novel corona virus (COVID-19) in China has influenced several aspects of the life of healthcare professionals, especially dentists, who are actually exposed to a higher risk of getting infected due to close interaction with their patients during treatments.</p> <p>The study was conducted to understand the anxiety and fear level of dental practitioners in getting infected during practice in the current corona virus (COVID-19) situation. In addition, also to evaluate their awareness about various practice modifications needed or required to combat COVID-19 during clinical practice.</p> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted by an online survey from 3<sup>rd</sup> Aug to 8th Sept 2020. For the central region, a well-defined survey was planned at Google doc. A total of 239 participants from 16 different states of India had responded. Post scrutiny, completed questionnaires (n = 210) were included in the study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25. Chi-Square and tests were applied</p> <p>The fear and anxiety levels of dentists are found as; 69% of participants were afraid getting infected from a patient visiting their clinics. 74.8% were scared while providing treatment to patients. 47.1% felt suggest or think not to do practice until the number of COVID-19 patient cases decreases.54.3% participants felt anxiety and scared while interacting to patients while treatments, 81% have fear to carry the infection from&nbsp; clinic to their home and can get their family infected. 40% were afraid of getting quarantined and 59.5% were concerned about the cost of treatment on the off chance if get Infected. Dental practitioners are in a state of anxiety and fear while treating their patients due to the pandemic impact around the community. A number of dental practitioners have either modified their clinical practice process as per recommended guidelines for emergency treatment only, or closed down clinics for an uncertain period.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Rakhi Bharat Rinku Jagnade Gopal Katare Sonal Daga Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 3 92 97 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.24 Not all wounds are visible- COVID -19 and mental health <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This article reviews the effect on mental health during noble covid-19.This article also reviews the mental health during infection outbreak, Psychological impact of quarantine, During the covid-19 pandemic, mental health issues faced by health care workers.</p> Swati Pathak Shivalingesh K K Henna Mir Adeeba Saleem Divya Srivastava Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 98 101 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.23 Aftermath of Covid-19 Pandemic on oral surgery and orthodontic practices in Northern India <p>The scuttlebutt is already churning out projections about what the post COVID-19&nbsp;work environment might look like. While we get ‘old-school’ in tackling challenges, we may also want to consider getting ‘tech savvy’ in regards to oral health delivery via teledentistry for prior consultation ultimately decreasing footfall in OPDs. The COVID-19 outbreak serves as both a reminder and an opportunity to assist. This is an ever evolving dynamic situation, and recommendations discussed herein are based on the best currently available information. However, the decision of the treatment of patients still rests with the individual practitioner. The blanket instruction is to dodge all aerosol related procedures in dental setups. It’s dentist prerogative to install all fail-safes and perform restorative procedure requiring AGPs with all efforts to mitigate the risk of transmission of the SARS-Cov-2 virus and for minimal working times with the appropriate PPE and infection control protocols. Even when not using AGPs, it is important that robust infection control measures are employed as this isn’t a perfect world, and we’re still in the throes of a pandemic,&nbsp;making it imperative to cultivate the right mind-set within ourselves. The intent of the present review is to consider changes in the clinical oral and maxillofacial surgery and orthodontic workflow and, allow for a smoother transition, with less risk to our patients and healthcare personnel.</p> Variyta Monika Chhabra Ravi Narula Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 3 102 107 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.25 Juvenile Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma – A rare case report and review <p>&nbsp;Peripheral ossifying fibroma, first reported by Shepard in 1844 as alveolar exostosis, is a non-neoplastic reactive lesion arising as a focal exophytic mass exclusively on the gingiva originating from the interdental area and shows no bone involvement in most cases. The lesion shows propensity for maxilla and incisor-cuspid region with female predilection. The etiological factors include local factors causing gingival irritation like calculus, plaque, ill fitting dentures or orthodontic appliances; and hormonal influence, initiate exhuberant connective tissue response. The lesion shows high recurrence potential , necessitating proper identification, treatment and effective long-term recall protocol. This case report presents a relatively rare case of juvenile peripheral ossifying fibroma in relation to mandibular central &amp; lateral incisors in an adolescent female child followed for upto 1 year</p> <p>after surgical excision</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Neha Saini Varun Saini Saurabh Jain Tiny Jain Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 108 111 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.19 The Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a partially amputated finger using a silicon prosthesis: A case report <p><strong>Abstract :</strong></p> <p>Loss always has a negative impact on an individual which engraves a feeling of incompleteness in many. Loss of anybody part creates an obstruction in the normal functioning of the body. Mostly the appendages such as arms, fingers, etc have a very important role in routine life which can restrict the living psychologically, functionally, and socially. The goal in rehabilitating a body part should be to create a substitute that is indistinguishable from adjacent and contralateral counterparts. Therefore maxillofacial prosthodontics is not only science but also an art. The present article is a case report of a person with a missing finger briefing the fabrication methodology of a custom-made silicone finger prosthesis.</p> Merazul Haque Rajani Dable Puneet Mutneja Spardha P Shrivastava Sabzar Abdullah Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 112 115 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.17 Conservative management of discolored maxillary central incisor with open apex using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) apical plug and walking bleach Method: A case report. <p>Esthetics enhancement is a better treatment option for a non-fracture discolored traumatic maxillary central incisor (Max CI). The traumatic injury occurred in Max CI teeth because it was present in the most anterior region of the jaw. Necrosis (pulpal) in Max CI is the second commonest complication after fracture due to trauma. Open apex, incomplete root development, root shortening, roots with a poor remaining dentinal thickness (RDT), and a compromised crown root ratio all these factors affect the survival prognosis of traumatized teeth. Nowadays MTA based bio regenerative material helps in treatment strategies like apexification that was a popular treatment of open apex cases. Necrosis associated discoloration is managed with a conservative approach non-vital bleaching, less time consuming, and satisfy the economical and esthetic aspect for the patient.</p> Vivek Kumar Pathak Taruna Saxena Kaushal Singh Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 116 119 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.22 Conserving a tooth in esthetic way - A case report <p>Esthetic treatment is the main concern for everyone in today’s world. Clinicians are in search of a durable and tooth colored restorative material. All ceramics with high strength are better alternative to composite, amalgam and gold for posterior tooth restoration. Tooth-colored restorations made from composite resin or ceramic has solved many of the esthetic concerns. This case report presented a durable and more conservative esthetic treatment for a broken tooth with bruxZir inlay.</p> Lalita Poonia Deepak Raisingani Prachi Mital Neha Mittal Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 3 120 123 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.20 Focal fibrous hyperplasia beneath the tongue – A rare case report <p>Focal fibrous hyperplasia is a slow growing connective tissue tumor that frequently occurs in different anatomic sites of the oral cavity. The present case report describes the occurrence of this lesion on the ventral surface of the tongue which is hitherto least reported intraoral site, in a 11 year old male patient, which was successfully excised.</p> Mohammed Ahsan Razi Surangama Debnath Bimal Chandra Kirtaniya Seema Qamar Copyright (c) 2021 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 3 124 127 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.21 Hemisection: An alternative to extraction : A case report <p>Hemisection is sectioning of multi-rooted teeth followed by removal of compromised root along with its associated crown portion and leaving the healthy root (with crown) intact. This treatment option can be considered when caries, resorption, perforation, or periodontal damage is restricted to one root while the other root is relatively healthy. The most critical factor determiningthe long term success in such cases is the appropriate case selection. This case report describes a case of hemisectionof a mandibular molar followed by adequate restoration in a young patient.</p> Deeksha Khurana Charu Thanvi Deepak Raisingani Prasad B. Ashwini Copyright (c) 2020 UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES 2021-01-11 2021-01-11 6 3 128 131 10.21276/ujds.2020.6.3.18