Gingival enlargement in thalassemia patient – A Conjectural Association
Thalassemia is a single gene inherited blood disease. Beta thalassemia major is life threating. It causes abnormality in various organs and oral-facial region. Thalassemia patients are immune-deficient because of iron-overload. Immune system abnormality includes neutrophilic dysfunction and impairment of phagocytosis by the monocyte-macrophage system. Iron accumulation also affects periodontal tissues, which seems to increase the level of cytokines and thus have an enhancing effect on gingival inflammation. This article highlights a peculiar case of gingival enlargement in anterior maxilla and mandible. The patient was known case of a beta-thalassemia major. Blood investigation revealed a lower level of hemoglobin. The patient underwent non-surgical periodontal therapy. Proper periodontal care improves the quality of life in these patients. This case report reinforces the significance of proper history taking with all minor details and the role of patient education in phase I therapy
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