A Comparative Evaluation of the Positional Accuracy of Multiple Implants by Open Tray Impression Technique using Three Different Splinting Materials: An in vitro study

  • Amrita Jayaswal Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Ayodhya,Uttar Pradesh
Keywords: Dental implants, open tray impression technique, splinting material, self-cure acrylic resin, pattern resin, flowable composite



Aim: To comparatively evaluate the positional accuracy of multiple implants by open tray impression technique using three different splinting materials namely self-cure acrylic resin, pattern resin and flowable composite.

Materials and Methods: An edentulous maxillary model was fabricated with heat-cure acrylic resin. Four dummy implants were placed bilaterally at canine and second premolar positions in the acrylic model, perpendicular to the horizontal plane and parallel to each other. Open tray impression copings were attached to dummy implants. The copings were splinted with dental floss onto which self-cure acrylic resin was added, which was sectioned and rejoined (for Group A). Similarly, pattern resin (for Group B) and flowable composite (for Group C) were used as splinting materials after sectioning and rejoining as previously described for Group A. Open tray impressions were made using polyvinylsiloxane impression material to obtain 10 casts for each group categorized according to the splinting material used. Interimplant distances were measured between implants on the master model and between the implant analogs in the retrieved casts in three different groups using a Coordinate measuring machine and a comparative evaluation of positional accuracy was done.

Results: Splinting with materials of all three Groups showed minimal variation in positions of multiple implants and within clinical limits. Group B (pattern resin) had more accurate values similar to master model compared to Group A (self-cure acrylic resin) and Group C (flowable composite), although statistically insignificant. The results with Groups A and C were similar. No statistically significant difference was derived between the three different groups.

Conclusion: It was concluded that all the three splinting materials evaluated in the study can be recommended as splinting material of choice for multiple implants using open tray impression technique.


1.Schneider A, Kurtzman GM, Silverstein LH. Improving implant framework passive fit and accuracy through the use of verification stents and casts. J Dent Technol. 2001; 18: 23-25.
2.Joseph Nissan and Oded Ghelfan, The press-fit implant impression coping technique.J Prosthet Dent 2009;101:413-414
3.Barrett MG, de Rijk WG, Burgess JO. The accuracy of six impression techniques for osseointegrated implants. J Prosthodont. 1993; 2:75-82.
4.Wee AG. Comparison of impression materials for direct multi-implant impressions. J Prosthet Dent. 2000; 83:323-31.
5.Wee AG, Aquilino SA, Schneider RL. Strategies to achieve fit in implant prosthodontics: a review of the literature. Int J Prosthodont. 1999; 12:167-78.
6.Lahori M, Mahesh L, Nagrath R, Singh S. An evaluation of the accuracy of multiple implant impression techniques: an in vitro study. J Implants Adv Clin Dent 2012 May-Jun; 4(3): 57-69.
7.Vigolo P, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. In vitro comparison of master cast accuracy for single‑tooth implant replacement. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 83:562‑6.
8.Herbst D, Nel JC, Driessen CH, Becker PJ. Evaluation of impression accuracy for osseointegrated implant supported superstructures. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 83:555‑61.
9.Michalakis KX, Kalpidis CD, Kang K, Hirayama H. A simple impression technique for dental implants placed in close proximity or adverse angulations. J Prosthet Dent 2005; 94:293‑5.
10.Fueki K, Kimoto K, Ogawa T, Garrett NR. Effect of implant‑supported or retained dentures on masticatory performance: A systematic review. J Prosthet Dent 2007; 98:470‑7.
11.Faria AC, Rodrigues RC, Macedo AP, Mattos Mda G, Ribeiro RF. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials. Braz Oral Res 2008; 22:293‑8.
12.Lee H, So JS, Hochstedler JL, Ercoli C. The accuracy of implant impressions: A systematic review. J Prosthet Dent 2008; 100:285‑91
13.Wenz HJ, Hertrampf K. Accuracy of impressions and casts using different implant impression techniques in a multi‑implant system with an internal hex connection. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008; 23:39‑47
14.Goodacre CJ, Bernal G, Rungcharassaeng K, Kan JY. Clinical complications with implants and implant prostheses. J Prosthet Dent. 2003; 90:121–32.
15. Lee H, Ercoli C, Funkenbusch PD, Feng C. Effect of subgingival depth of implant placement on the dimensional accuracy of the implant impression:an in vitro study. J Prosthet Dent. 2008; 99:107–13.
16.Al Quran FA, Rashdan BA, Zomar AA, Weiner S. Passive fit and accuracy of three dental implant impression techniques. Quintessence Int. 2012; 43:119–25.
17.Kim S, Nicholls JI, Han CH, Lee KW. Displacement of implant components from impressions to definitive casts. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2006; 21:747–55.
18.Goll GE. Production of accurately fitting full-arch im-plant frameworks: Part I--Clinical procedures. J Prosthet Dent. 1991; 66: 377-384.
19.Humphries RM, Yaman P, Bloem TJ. The accuracy of implant master casts constructed from transfer impres-sions. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1990; 5: 331-336.
20.Hsu CC, Millstein PL, Stein RS. A comparative analysis of the accuracy of implant transfer techniques. J Prosthet Dent. 1993; 69: 588-593.
21.Prithviraj DR, Malesh L, Pooja G, Shruthi DP. Accuracy of the implant impression obtained from different impression materials and techniques: Review. J Clin Exp Dent 2011; 3:106‑11.
22.Lee SJ, Cho SB. Accuracy of five implant impression technique: Effect of splinting materials and methods. J Adv Prosthodont 2011; 3:177‑85.
23.Ma J, Rubenstein JE. Complete arch implant impression technique. J Prosthet Dent 2012; 107:405‑10.
24.Balamurugan T, Manimaran P. Evaluation of accuracy of direct transfer snapon impression coping closed tray impression technique and direct transfer open tray impression technique: An in vitro study.J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2013;13:226‑32.
25.Geramipanah F, Sahebi M, Davari M, Hajimahmoudi M, Rakhshan V. Effects of impression levels and trays on the accuracy of impressions taken from angulated implants. Clin Oral Implants Res 2015; 26:1098‑105.
26.Mojon P, Oberholzer JP, Oberholzer JP, Meyer JM, Belser UC. Polymerization shrinkage of index and pattern acrylic resins. J Prosthet Dent. 1990;64:684–8.
27.Choi JH, Lim YJ, Yim SH, Kim CW. Evaluation of the accuracy of implant level impression techniques for internal-connection implant prostheses in parallel and divergent models. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2007;22:761–8.
28.Naconecy MM, Teixeira ER, Shinkai RS, Frasca LC, Cervieri A. Evaluation of the accuracy of 3 transfer techniques for implant-supported prostheses with multiple abutments. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2004; 19:192–8.
29.Hazboun GB, Masri R, Romberg E, Kempler J, Driscoll CF. Effect of implant angulation and impression technique on impressions of Nobel Active implants. J Prosthet Dent. 2015; 113(5):425–31.
30.Martínez-Rus F, García C, Santamaría A, Özcan M, Pradíes G. Accuracy of definitive casts using 4 implant-level impression techniques in a scenario of multi-implant system with different implant angulations and subgingival alignment levels. Implant Dent. 2013; 22(3):268–76.
31.Shankar YR, Sahoo S, Krishna MH, Kumar PS, Kumar TS, Narula S. Accuracy of implant impressions using various impression techniques and impression materials. J Dent Implant. 2016; 6(1):29–36
32.Herman B. Dumbrigue, Dincer C. Gurun and Nikzad S. Javid. Prefabricated acrylic resin bars for splinting implant transfer copings. J Prosthet Dent 2000; 84:108-10.
33.Eames WB, Wallace SW, Suway NB, Rogers LB. Accuracy and dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials. J Prosthet Dent. 1979 Aug;42(2):159-62.
34.Joseph TM, Ravichandran R, Lylajam S, Viswabharan P, Janardhanan K, Rajeev S. Evaluation of positional accuracy in multiple implants using four different splinting materials: An in vitro study.J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2018; 18:239-47.
35.Ibrahim TO, Ghuneim WA. Composite resin versus two different splinting techniques on evaluation of impression accuracy for dental implants. Life Sci J 2013;10:12.
36.Farshid Akbari Kamrani, Amir Namazi, Reza Hamedy,Pakhshan Ghaderi. Accuracy of an open-tray implant impression technique with 3 splinting materials: An in vitro study.General dentistry 2014; 62(2):62-6 
How to Cite
Jayaswal, A. (2021). A Comparative Evaluation of the Positional Accuracy of Multiple Implants by Open Tray Impression Technique using Three Different Splinting Materials: An in vitro study. UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.21276//ujds.2021.7.2.7